History of Lancaster County

Excerpt from the History of Lancaster County, H.M.J. Klein Ph.d., PA, 1926 1957

LITITZ AND THE MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT.

The Moravian church settlement at Lititz was not begun until 1754 and the village was not laid out until 1757, but its origin is traced to the efforts of Count Zinzendorf, patron of the Renewed Church of the United Brethren, or Moravians, in 1742-43. A Moravian settlement had been made at Bethlehem, and in furtherance of his church and of the Gospel, Count Zinzendorf in 1742 proceeded from Bethlehem, "through Berks county, where he visited the Schwenfelders and other sects," and eventually reached Lancaster county, where "among other pious persons whom he visited was Mr. Jacob Huber, of Warwick township." He met with a friendly reception. "The same evening after his arrival, he addressed the assembled neighbors. Many more would have attended had they not been prevented by Mr. George Kline, Mr. Huber's neighbor, who made efforts to dissuade others from hearing him, and endeav- ored to excite unkind feelings against him."

However, during the Count's visit, which lasted several days, Kline "became very uneasy touching his course," states an article written by a member of the Moravian Society of Lititz for Rupp's "History of Lancaster County" (1844) ; "his conscience told him loudly he had not acted rightly." The following day, Count Zinzendorf went to Lancaster, having been given. permission to preach in the court house. "Kline followed him thither to hear him preach, and was one of his most attentive hearers." The Count's address "removed all his prejudice and made such an impression on his mind that he, as well as some of his neighbors, requested him to visit them again, or to send a minister who preached like him." So the Count "on his return to Bethle- hern sent the Rev. Jacob Lischy to them, with orders to visit other pious per- sons who resided in various parts of Lancaster county. * * * After that they were for a number of years visited by others from Bethlehem." Among the evangelists, after Lischy, were Christian Henry Rauch and David Bruce. Meetings were held in private houses. Huber's house stood upon the site of the present Snyder homestead, north of Lititz; other settlers were scattered over Warwick township. The first settler in Warwick township was Richard Carter, who probably warranted his holding, though he never held letters patent. He settled on the west side of Conestoga creek, about a mile from its mouth, but a year or so later moved to where Millport later developed. The small stream having its source in Lititz Spring was named Carter's run in his honor. He was appointed magistrate upon the formation of Warwick township in 1729; he died in 1750. Among the early settlers who might have been present at the Zinzendorf addresses in Jacob Huber's house were Christian Bomberger (Bambarger), George Eby, John Girigerich, Michael Pfautz, Christian and Jacob Hershey, John and Daniel Brubaker. George Kline (or Klein), who did not attend but who later was instrumental in establishing the Moravian settlement at Lititz, settled in Warwick township prior to 1840. His land eventually became the site of Lititz. He took out patent for 296 1/2 acres on July 14,1841, and for 32 1/2 acres on December 12, 1747.

George Kline was a member of the Lutheran church, and of the first Luth- eran congregation in Warwick township, but so strongly was he impressed by the preaching of Count Zinzendorf that he at once ceased his antagonism toward Moravian church activities. He ultimately became of the Moravian faith, and finally transferred to that church the whole of the land he owned in Lancaster county. The first church built within what became the bounds of Lititz was a log structure erected on Kline's land in 1744 (Rupp says in 1741), "at the instance of a number of Lutheran, Reformed and Mennonite attendants on the preaching of Rev. Lawrence Nyberg, a Swedish Lutheran minister" of Lancaster who came occasionally to preach to Lutherans in Warwick township. The log church stood near the road to Lancaster, on the ground still occupied by "the old graveyard." The church was dedicated by the Rev. Nyberg "on the festival of St. James," July 25, 1744, and for that reason per- haps was named St. James' Church. (Rupp gives the name as St. jacob's, and the name of the minister as Rev. Theophilus Neyberg). Services were held in this church by the Rev. Nyberg monthly until 1746, when he left the Lan- caster congregation and devoted his whole attention to the Lutheran congregation in Warwick township. He was in sympathy with Count Zinzendorf in some respects, and in 1746 "he was suspended from his ministry owing to his independent views and the character of his preaching." Being thus released from his Lancaster charge, he was able thereafter to preach every Sunday in the Warwick township church, St. James', which under his ministry became almost of union character. He "opened his pulpit to the various itinerant Moravian ministers," and finally "united himself with the greater part of his flock with the Moravian Society." The Moravian minister resident among the "awakened" persons in Warwick township at that time was the Rev. Daniel Neubert, who came with his wife from Philadelphia in September, 1845. His work "was entirely pastoral, consisting of visits from house to house, and,in keeping private meetings on weekday evenings."

In September of 1745, or 1746 (Rupp says in 1747), members of the Warwick congregation met at the house of George Kline to consider the question of building a school and meeting house (a Gemeinhaus) which would serve also as a dwelling place for the minister. Present at the meeting were Nicho244 las and Frederick Kiesel, Hartman Vertries, Michael Eib, Jacob Scherzer, Jacob Heil, John Bender, Sr., Christian Palmer, Jacob Scheffier, George Kline. The Revs. Nyberg, Rauch and Neubert were also present. The will of the meeting was that a Gemeinhaus be erected, all promising to contribute toward its building. George Kline donated a site of three and three-quarters acres (subsequently increased by gift or purchase to eight acres and twenty-three perches), and in November the cellar was dug on March 29, 1747, cornerstone was laid by the Revs. Nyberg and Neubert; on May 24, 1748, the Rev. Leonard Schnell occupied the house "and commenced the school with four boys and three girls, his wife teaching the latter." (Rupp's version is that "on the 9th of February, 1748, this house was consecrated, and on the 22nd of July following, the Rev. Leonard Schnell moved into it, as their minister and school teacher. On the 13th of May following, he opened the school, with four boys and three girls").

Continuing to quote from the "Early History of Lititz," compiled and read at the Sesqui-Centennial Celebration of the Lititz Moravian Congregation, September 10-11, 1899, by A. R. Beek, archivist of the Moravian Church, it appears that on June 28, 1748, the Rev. Reinhard Ronner and wife arrived from Bethlehem as assistants in the school and pastoral work; on August ii, the first lovefeast was held in the Gemeinhaus; on November 13, George Kline (or Klein) and Leonard Bender were received into the communion of the Brethren's church at Bethlehem, the first to be so received in America, all other members "being recent emigrants from Europe;" and on February 9, 1749, the Brethren Spangenburg, de Watteville, Seidel and others from Bethlehem, were present to dedicate the Gemeinhaus. On that day the "Warwick Country Congregation" was also organized, with the following first members: Brethren George Kline, Hans George Kiesel, Henry Rudy, Jacob Scherzer; Sisters Anna Kline, Christiana Kiesel, Verona Rudy, Apollonia Scherzer. Communion was held, and the day was thereafter observed as the Gemeinfast of the Warwick congregation. Twenty-two new members were received in November, 1749, during a Provincial Synod then held in Warwick. The church was strengthened in 1753 by the organization of a "Society," i. e., "a class of persons who, whilst they were not members of the Warwick church, desired to be under the spiritual supervision of its pastors and to share in the ordinary and special church services." Members of this auxiliary of the Warwick church were Hans Bender, David Biehler, Martain Boehler, Andrew Bort, Henry Bossert, Michael Eib, Andrew Frey, Christopher Frey, Valentine Grosh, Jacob Heil, David Hilton, Christian Huetter, Jacob Jones, Michael Klein, Christian Kling, Henry Lehn, Paul Lehn, John Nohel, Michael Palmer, Christian Palmer, John Plattenberger, Henry Tschudy, also their wives; also Francis Scip and Michael Zahm, single; and Herculrode and Barbara Stauffer, widows.

Moravian Settlement Planned
At this time the two Moravian church settlements were Bethlehem and Nazareth, in Pennsylvania. The former was the "Pilgrim Congregation," consisting exclusively of minisiters, missionaries and ministerial students; the latter, Nazareth, was t5e "Patriarch's Congregation," its members being mostly farmers who labored for the church and a common treasury. "The members lived in close quarters and with the greatest economy, surrendering many individual rights." For such a restricted and self-effacing life many of the emigrants from Europe were not suited; therefore Zinzendorf and Spangenburg resolved to provide a third Moravian church set- tlement (Gemeinort) in Pennsylvania, one which would afford Moravians greater freedom of action and enterprise than prevailed at Nazareth, and yet would bring members under "closer spiritual supervision" and fellowship in the church than could be obtained in the country congregations, such as Warwick. To establish such a settlement, George Kline, of Warwick township, in 1753 offered to give his entire landed property, 491 acres (Rupp says, "more than 600 acres") to the church, in exchange for an annuity of L70 sterling. Kline repeated the offer in 1754, announcing his purpose to retire to Bethlehem with his wife and daughter; and on August 20, 1754, the legal transfer of the property to the Unity of the Brethren was made.

In the spring of 1754, George Kline had built a two-story stone house near his log house. He may have intended that it should be used as a dwelling by the ministers; at all events, he himself did not occupy it. Brother Nixdorff, from Lancaster, was the first occupant; and it was afterwards used as a par- sonage, also as a meeting house, "along with the Warwick Gemeinhaus, until 1761." Later, it served the purpose of tavern and store. It stood on the north side of Main street, centrally placed, and in 1757 was the factor which decided the direction of the main street of the village of Lititz then platted. The building was demolished in 1864 or 1866. The "Warwick church and school house," the Warwick Gemeinhaus, stood on the eastern part of Mr. Kline's farm, on a declivity of a slight hill, north of what is now Main street and northeast of the Badorf residence. It was taken down and rerected within the village limits in 1766, and stood opposite the square, on the northeast corner, until destroyed in the fire of July 16, 1838. After removal from its original site, the Warwick Gemeinhaus was used "as a dwelling and school house for the teacher who had charge of the school for such children as did not belong to the Society. * * * The children of the Society had then a separate school."

Early History of Lititz-Lititz began to take entity in June, 1756. On June 12 letters were received from Zinzendorf in one of which he gave the name Lititz (or Litiz) to the new settlement, after the barony of Lititz, in Bohemia, where the infant church had found refuge in 1456. A year earlier, Bishop Nehl had been charged with the organization and guidance of the new settlement, and had arrived from Bethlehem on November 9, 1755, taking up his residence in Kline's stone house, which thereafter was called the Pilgerhaus, and after receipt of the letters from Count Zinzendorf, rapid progress was made. A saw mill was erected by the sons of John Bender, and on February 9, 1757, the town or village of Lititz was surveyed and laid out in lots by the Rev. Nathaniel Seidel and Mr. John Reuter, and the name of Lititz was given to it. Felling of trees began February 12, and quarrying on the 22nd. On April 19, Lewis Cassler arrived from Philadelphia, and having bought a house lot, began to build a dwelling. "This house, the first private house in Lititz, occupied the site of Mr. Israel G. Erb's present residemce," wrote John G. Zook in his excellent Lititz historical work, which he published in 1905.

On January 18, 1758, a council was held to ascertain how much building and labor each member would contribute for the two choir houses, i. e., the houses for the single brethren and sisters. On June, Or July 7, 1758, the cor- nerstone of the Single Sisters' House was laid by Bishop Spangenburg. The house was built of limestone, three stories high, go feet long and 37 feet deep. A simiular but smaller house was built for the single brethren in 1759. Cornerstone was laid by Brethren Peter Boehler and Gottlieb Bezold (Petzord), on July 4, 1759. The latter was architect and superintendent. On May 14 Of that year it was decided to unite the two congregations, Lititz and Warwick, under the name of Lititz. Thus Lititz gained added importance as a Moravian settlement. The combined strength was 253 persons, including children, at the end of 1757.

Owing probably to the gathering of many persons in Lititz while conditions of living were still primitive, the settlement suffered from fever and dysentery during 1758 and 1759. Dr. Schmidt, a physician, came from Bethlehem to attend the sick in 1859, and in the next year Dr. Frederick Otto, the first physician to take up permanent residence in Lititz, arrived, moving "into the house at the spring, vacated by Brother Haller." (The log house of George Kline). The first child born in Lititz was John Bomgartner, on September 26, 1758. He died early in November that year, and his body was the first to be interred in the new graveyard, "on the hill south of the present church." The graveyard should be described, for there is not another like it in Lancaster county, stated Rupp, in 1844:

It is enclosed with a white fence, along which there is an avenue of trees; there are three gates leading to it, one large one, and two at its sides of smaller dimensions; the large one is never opened except on funeral occasions. Over this there is an arch. * * * After entering the gate the visitor finds himself in a beautiful avenue of cedar trees which separates the graves of the niales from those of the females, the former being on the right and; the latter on the left. Here the visitor finds the row containing nothing but the married men and on the opposite side married women; as be passes on, those of the single classes, and further, those of little boys and girls under the age of twelve. The graves are all of two sizes, being without distinction of an oblong shape, and flat on the top, to which shape they are brought by two moulds, expressly kept for that purpose, one for adults and the other for children. The sides are planted with sod, and the tops are overrun with the Virginia mountain pink, which in the month of May is in full bloom, and renders the appearance of the graves one of the most beautiful imaginable. On each grave there is a marble tombstone, which without distinction lays flat on the grave, verifying the old adage: "Death levels all, both great and small.' The epitaphs contain the name, birth, and departure; to some, a few more lines have been added, a number of which are truly edifying, and very striking. Each tombstone is numbered and the highest number in 1843 is 527. The first person was buried there in 1758.

Municipal
Until i855, Lititz was owned exclusively by the Moravian Church, and only those who were of that church could in the early days lease land withity the village boundaries. All of the early industrial and civic agencies were undertaken by the church authorities or with their sanction. The first store was that managed by Innkeeper Horn, in the Pilgerhaus. The first bakery was that which "Brother John Thomas received permission to start" in 1764. The mills-saw, grist and fulling-were enterprises of the Moravian Church. All civic functioning was to all intents by church ordinance. Interesting entries are to be found in the diaries of the Moravian congregation. For instance:

1770-September 28. A church council resolved that each householder should lay a pavement of some kind before his house.

1773-July 1. The church council, resolved that it should not be permitted to the young men to wander around the farms at fruit time.

1774-July 7. A public advertisement having summoned all the freeholders of this county to meet at Lancaster on the ninth for an election of a committee and deputies to Congress in Philadelphia, a meeting was held with all our freeholders to consult what should be our position in the serious conjuncture which has ari sen between the colonies and the mother country. The conclusion reached was that Brother Horn should be our representative.

1775-February 27. in a council meeting attention was drawn to the measures adopted by Congress regarding the use of tea. It was resolved that the sale of tea in our store shall cease.

1792. A night watchman was appointed, there having been a good deal of thieving in the neighborhood and an attempt at robbing the store. He went on duty at ten o'clock, and after midnight called out the hours. His salary was twenty-four pounds.

It was not until 1828 that an independent store business was permitted to be conducted in Lititz; in that year Jacob Tshudy "started in business with his own stock of goods" and, with this exception, the Church Council would not permit any other store to compete with its own until 1843. Then the church store was sold to Nathaniel S. Wolle. Regarding Lititz, Rupp's "History of Lancaster County" (1844) has a paragraph which reads: "One of the stores, and the tavern belong to the community, to which also belongs the land, which is partly divided into farms, and partly into lots, which are rented by the inhabitants, and the profits arising from the rents are applied for various purposes." However, for forty or fifty years prior to that time, indeed ever since the years of the Revolutionary War and the commingling then of Moravians with soldiers who were quartered in Lititz, the church had been experiencing "a period of transition, a change from the old time to the new, characterized by a tenacious clinging to earlier customs and regulations that belong to the past on the one hand, and an indifference or opposition to them on the other hand." The passing of business enterprises out of the jurisdiction of the church in 1843 was an indication of the change. The radical change, however, came in 1855, when the so-called lease system was abolished by a vote of the Church Council, "not however without considerable opposition." Thus Lititz ceased to be an enclusive church settlement, when it had become clear that the leasing system was no longer practicable. Presumably, Lititz residents forced this change in church policy; at all events, the people of the community acted quickly, petitioning the county authorities and being granted corporate powers of village governance in November of the same year, 1855. The first board of trustees elected under the powers of the charter of incorporation were Francis M. Rauch, Ferdinand D. Rickert, Nathaniel S. Wollet, George T. Greider, John William Rauch and Samuel Lichtenthaeler. Lititz continued to hold village status until 1888. On April 24th of that year Lititz was incorporated as a borough. The first borough election was held on May 26. Johnson Miller was elected burgess; Aaron Habecker, William Evans, J. A. Buch, J. H. Shenk and D. E. Lighti councilmen; Robert N. Wolle, Jacob L. Stehman and 1. F. Bomberger, auditors; D. M. Dietrich, justice; I. G.Pfautz, assessor. The first meeting of the council was held on June 7, at the next meeting John G. Zook was elected secretary, and Israel G. Erb treasurer. Norman Badorf is present burgess, J. S. Herr is secretary.

Of the municipal departments, the fire-fighting organizations possess the most interesting history. Engine and hose for the early settlement were provided by a fund established by public subscription in 1790, the engine being as three hundred and fifty florins, made by a famous German maker. Its cost was three hundred and fifty florins, and the cost of the hose was seventy-five florins. Shipment was made in September, 1792, and the material reached Philadelphia in February, 1793. Freight charges amounted to L10 9s. 9 1/2d. In 1795 extensive repairs were necessary, but the engine remained serviceable for many years, and is still in existence.

The first especially disastrous fire occurred in 1838. Then six buildings were destroyed and the whole village endangered, the fire destroying the old Warwick church, as well as damaging Linden Hall and other buildings. In that year a fire company was organized to operate the two engines owned by the community. The original engine, that imported from Germany in 1792, was rebuilt by Martin Schreiner, of Lancaster, and another engine, known as the "Friendship," had been purchased in Philadelphia. The fire company was of volunteer status, and was named the Assistance Fire Company. The original officers were Samuel Lichtenthater, president; Rufus A. Greider, secretary; Levi Hull and Francis W. Christ, vice-presidents; Frederick A. Zitzman, treasurer; Aaron Traeger and William Keller, engineers. Residents enrolled in the fire company to the number of sixty-one. No further serious conflagration occurring, the fire company membership dwindled to inoperative number after some years; and when the village passed from the church to corporate government in 1855 it was thought advisable to reorganize the fire company. The Friendship Fire Company functioned from 1855 to 1861 with about sixty members, but was disbanded upon the outbreaking of Civil War. For thirty years or more thereafter, Lititz was without a fire-fighting organization. In 1894 a meeting of citizens was called, and the Lititz Fire Company, No. 1, was organized on February 15, with the following officers- Dr. J. L. Hertz, president; William M. Amer and Elmer E. Ritchie, vice-presidents; Henry R. Gibbel, secretary; A. R. Bomberger, secretary; T. R. Kreider, treasurer; Herman Fisher, W. S. Diehm and H. K. Gonter trustees. The Stevens electric fire alarm system was later installed, and a fire bell weighing 600 pounds suspended over the fire hall, which also served as the council chamber. The municipal building had been erected on East Orange street in 1894, and had evidently been planned to serve the dual purpose. A new municipal building on South Broad street was erected in 1917-18.

Public Utilities
Water records begin with a meeting of citizens held on April 12, i887, "to organize a water company for street sprinkling and other purposes;" but it was not until 1893, its seems, that "water and electric light were introduced in the borough." On May 24, i892, the Moravian church, Sunday school and parsonage were illuminated with gas for the first time. The standpipe and powerhouse of the Lititz Water Company stand in a two-acre enclosure adjoining the baseball ground on the south and the Lititz Spring grounds on the west.

Lititz Spring has been one of the distinctive features of Lititz since the early days of the church settlement. The water is stated to have certain desirable and health-giving mineral properties, and at one time bottled Lititz water was in good demand outside Lititz. Quoting from Editor Zook's "Historical and Pictorial Lititz:" "The spring is a strong one of the clearest limestone water, and empties into a large oval pool surrounded by cut sandstone coping. It is claimed that several underground streams converge at this point. A person standing at the elevation west of the springs is puzzled to understand where the reservoir exists that supplies the vast volume of water. It is believed that a large part of it comes from the hills far to the northwest. It is claimed that chaff put into the cave on the John Bomberger farm on the Manheim road two miles away reached the springs by way of a subterranean stream."

James Carter, the pioneer settler in Warwick township, settled on the Lititz creek, which for long thereafter was known as Carter's creek. From its head to the Conestoga river, into which its empties, the distance is six miles, and the spring flowed so strongly in the early settlement days that it provided sufficient waterpower "for some of the largest merchant mills in the county," stated Rupp. In pre-settlement days, the Indians favored the Lititz region as a carnping ground, because of the abundance of good drinking water available at the spring. It then formed a large pond, and the vicinity in places was swampy. About the year 1780 the first attempt was made to adorn the approaches to the spring; Tobias Hirte then set out the willow trees which later became valuable contributions to the park planning. In 1792 certain young men of the settlement conceived the idea of fitting up the place as a pleasure ground. The Church Council did not encourage the idea, fearing that such a "lushphaltz" would engender too much worldliness, but they finally gave their consent, and reluctantly granted an acre for park purposes. By voluntary labor on Saturday afternoons and on moonlight nights, the villagers at first filled in the swamp, which in the springtime in former years had been generally covered with water to a sufficient depth to admit of boating. Other improvements included the building of a bath house. Many trees were planted, but all died excepting the locust trees. Discouraged by this failure and by the opposition of farmers who would have preferred the spot always to remain a cattle pond, the improvement project was finally abandoned, and it was not until 1835 that the project was revived. Then plans to give the spot a sylvan beauty were followed intelligently, and in course of time its beauty attracted not only the people of Lititz, but those of many tther places also. Celebrations were held as early as1818, but the first of a series of Fourth of July celebrations for raising revenue with which to carry out the park-planning in the Spring grounds, was held in 1843. Thereafter, Independence Day celebrations were the main source of revenue for the maintenance of the park, but the greatest help came from a loan of $1,500 to the park committee by Jacob Tshudy. John Beck, principal of the Lititz Boys' Academy, took great interest in directing the work. The standstone founts and coping were placed around the pool in 1856, at a cost of $1,500, the Coleman, Tshudy, Beck and Lichtenthaler families cooperating to carry the work to completion. Lititz becanie a railroad town in 1863, and soon thereafter parties began to come from Reading and elsewhere and picnic in the Spring grounds. With the pass- ing of time, Lititz Spring grounds became more and more popular as a pic- nicking place, and it became necessary to provide suitable accommodation, though such a general use for the park had never entered the minds of the men who, seven or eight decades ago, began to beautify the approaches to the Lititz Spring.

Transportation
Outstanding events in transportation history of the Lititz district include the laying out of the Lititz section of the Reading to Ander- son's Ferry wagon road in 1761; the finishing of the turnpike' over the old Crown road between Lititz and Lancaster in 1847; the coming of the Reading & Columbia railway in 1863; the organization of the Lititz & Rothsville Turnpike Company in 1882; the leasing of a lot in the Lititz Spring grounds to the Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company in 1884, for the erection thereon of a railway station, which station was built and opened to the public on December 1, 1884; the leasing of the Lititz & Lancaster turnpike in 1894 to the Conestoga Traction Company, so that Lititz and Lancaster might be connected by electric railway, this being effected in 1895; and the running of street cars for the first time as far as the R. and C. railway on July 21, 1899. The Philadelphia & Reading lease of station lot extends for ninety-nine years, but an important condition is that the lot will revert to the Moravian church if used for any other than the original purpose. The leasing of the turnpike to the Traction Company is for 999 years. The first meeting of citizens to consider the matter of establishing trolley service between Lititz and Lancaster was held on February 6, 1890, and the trolley tracks were completed as far as Kissel Hill by April 30, 1895. On that morning and so far, the trolley traveled with passengers along the road from Lancaster. The cars ran as far as the southern borough limit on May 15 of that year.

Schools
Until 1852, owing to the excellence of the two academies, no public schools were established in Lititz excepting for primary grades. The position in 1844 is stated thus by Rupp: "There are four schools in the village; two of them are, however, infant schools; one for the little boys and one for the little girls. In these schools the small children of the village. and some from the neighborhood, are taught to read, the rudiments of arithmetic, and some writing, and from these they are promoted into the two existing higher schools."

In 1852, Lititz was organized as an independent school district under the common school system of Pennsylvania; but to all intents the old and excellent order was continued for many years thereafter. Under the new district school board a primary school was opened on January 5, 1853, but the system of graduating girls from that school to Linden Hall Academy and boys to Beek's Lititz Academy, was continued until the opening of a high school in 1870, tuition fees for children graduated to the academies being borne by the district, which included a part of Warwick township. John Beck's retirement from acadamic work in 1865 was probably one of the main reasons for the institution of a high school by the district school board. Lititz Primary School had an enrollment of thirty-two children in 1855, fifty-two in 1861, and eighty- two ten years later. In 1871 enrollment embraced the attendance in the primary school and also in the high school, which was erected in 1870 at a cost of'$8,500. The primary school building consisted of two rooms until 1889, when two more rooms were added. The high school building was remodelled in 1903. Additional information is given in the, general chapter on the Public Schools of Lancaster County (q. v.).

Miscellaneous
The financial history of Lititz to 1855 is to be found mainly in the archives of the Moravian Church. An entry in the church diary dated July 29, 1775, reads: "Congress and the Assembly having ordered that non- associators, i. e., those whose refuse to bear arms, shall contribute in money to the expenses of the country, the brethren David Tanneberger, of Lititz, and Christopher Frey, from the country members, were appointed collectors." For two or three decades after the Revolution, the church settlement did not prosper financially. The two wars with Britain established periods in which provisions and labor were costly, and paper currency in a state of depreciation. "Still," writes the diarist of the year 1779, "we have not only had a sufficiency, but have been able to give to others." In that year the church paid in taxes more than four hundred dollars, and the citizens "as much more."

However, the system of church ownership of land and commercial agencies in the community was not a financial success, and was impracticable in other respects; but with the opening of these agencies to private enterprise in 1855 the financial status of the community improved, so much so that in 1867 "its business men felt the need of a banking institution." This was supplied in i869 by the organization then of the Lititz Deposit Bank, under State supervision, with John Evans, William Evans, Emanuel Kauffman, Samuel E. Keller, R. R. Tshudy and M. T. Huebener as directors. In 1880 the institution became a National bank, taking the name Lititz National Bank. In 1905 its paid-in capital stock was $105,000, and there was a surplus fund Of $45,000. It was involved in the failure of the Wellington Starch Company, and could not recover, so a receivership was established. It went out of existence, but depositors did not suffer any loss. The Farmers' National Bank of Lititz was brought into operation in igoi, with a capital of $60,000. The original officers were Dr. P. J. Roebuck, president; E. L. Garber, vice-president; H. G. Gingrich, cashier. The two first named, with J. F. Buch, S. W. Buch, N. B. Leaman, William Amer, H. S. Meiskey, C. H. Bomberger, Hiram Buckwatter and J. G. Usner constituted the directorate. The capital, surplus and undivided profits in 1922 amounted to $165,000, and plans were being made for the erection of a new banking house. S. W. Buch is president and J. H. Breitigan

The Lititz Springs National Bank was organized May 22, 1909, with a capital of $50,000, and the following officers: D. M. Graybill, president; A. W. Sensenich, vice-president; P. F. Snyder, cashier. The bank opened for business on June 1, 1909, at 40 East Main street. In 1917, the northeast corner lot at East Main and North Broad streets was acquired from the P. J. Roebuck estate, and preparations made for the erection of a fine banking house thereon. Construction, however, did not begin until May, 1922. Capital, surplus and undivided profits in August, 1922, amounted to $183,000. D. M. Graybill is still president and Mr. Sensenich is still vice-president; but Mr. Snyder was succeeded as cashier in 1918 by Mr. H. H. Diehm. The original directorate has remained unchanged with one exception, Dr. M. H. Yoder being elected in 1919. The other directors are D. M. Graybill, A. W. Sensenich, H. C. Miller, C. S. Landes, Henry H. Myers, Adam L. Burkholder, P. K. Graybill.

Lititz has two good newspapers, the older being the "Express." Mr. John G. Zook has been editor-owner of it for more than forty years.

Fraternal-There are several strong lodges of fraternal and beneficial orders in Lititz. The first to be instituted was a lodge of the American Mechanics, which functioned from August 10, ig6g, to 1877, and was then merged with a Manheim branch of the same order. The Lititz Springs council of the junior Order United American Mechanics was not formed until February 19, 1897. The meeting for organization was held in Bomberger's Hall, fifty-one enrolling as charter members.

Of the present lodges, Lititz Lodge, No. 253, Knights of Pythias, is the oldest, and one of the strongest. It was instituted on May 20, 1870. The charter members were John Kohl, Isaac Pfautz, R. R. Tshudy, Dallas Flory, J. F. Dichm, H. H. Tshudy, William B. Bollinger, Aaron Hybecker, John Breneman. The original senior officers were John Kohl, W. C.; and I. G. Pfautz, V. C. For fourteen years or more the Pythians were the sole lessees of Bomberber's Hall, moving into Rudy's Hall in 1900.

Garfield Castle, NO. 76, Knights of the Golden Eagle, was next instituted, coming into being on March 3, 1886, when thirty members were admitted. After twenty years, its membershihp exceeded 225.

On March 13, 1886, Stevens Post, No. 517, Grand Army of the Republic, was conceived by twelve Civil War soldiers who met at the Sturgis House. On May 7 that year the post was installed and began to function with twenty-two members. For many years Stevens Post annually decorated the graves of deceased soldiers at Kissel Hill, Lexington, Brunnerville, Brickerville and Rothsville.

Lititz Lodge, No. 1050, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on July 17, 1892. The petition for charter was signed by twenty-three Odd Fellows and twenty candidates. Bomberger's Hall was the original place of meeting.

Morning Star Temple, NO. 7o, Ladies of the Golden Eagle, was formed on June 22, 1895, in K. of P. Hall. There were thirty-four charter members.

Lititz Castle, No. 19, Ancient Order Knights of Mystic Chain, came into being November 25, 1899, thirty-five members Weing initiated on the night of institution, which took place in Bomberger's Hall. The auxiliary body of the same order, Lititz Assembly, No. 48, Daughters of Naomi, A. 0. K. of M. C,. was organized in Rudy's Hall, December 7, 1904. Twenty-seven candidates were then initiated.

Court Lititz, No. 296, Foresters of America, was instituted April 27, 1904, at Rudy's Hall, and began to function with twenty-one members.

Lititz Camp, N0. 561, Patriotic Order Sons of America, came into existence September 30, 1904, with forty-two members. The instituting ceremonies were held in Rudy's Hall. There was an older graveyard, that of St. James (St. Jacob's) Church, and for some years after the dedication of the new one, both were used, "apparently according to individual preferences." In 1779 the new graveyard was reserved exclusively for residents of Lititz proper, and the terms "The Graveyard for Outside Brethren," and the "Warwick Graveyard" came into use.

The first Easter Morning service observed in the Lititz settlement was that held in the St. James graveyard in 1759. The service was concluded in the new graveyard with a Te Deum. The first Christmas Eve service for the children was that held in 1759. The custom of presetting each child with a lighted candle was not introduced in Lititz until the Christmas Eve service of 1765.

The first innkeeper was Brother Andrew Horn, who received his license on February 8, 1762.* The inn was kept in George Kline's stone house, then known as the Pilgerhaus. Bishop Hehl was permitted to occupy rooms in the Sisters' House temporarily. The first saw and grist mill was that built in 1757, under the direction of Brother Christiansen, who came from Bethlehem for the purpose. On August 15 the "mill was raised without injury to any one;" on November 11 the mill was started; and "on the 18th our Lititz family had bread from some of the first flour made," reads an entry under that date in the church diary. Formerly the Lititz settlement was supplied with flour by the Moravian settlement in North Carolina, a wagon passing through Lititz regularly every few months. The Lititz mill, a log structure, was destroyed by fire November 25, 1776, one thousand bushels of grain being then lost. It was rebuilt, without delay, of stone. In 1765 the ground was staked off for a wool carding mill on the Lititz creek. In June the mill was in operation. In 1771 the log church, St. James' (St. Jacob's), "being much out of repair and not used any more for sacred worship, was taken down and removed to the fulling mill below the village and converted into a dwelling house for the miller."
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*The Lititz Springs Hotel, originally named "Zum Anker" (Anchor Inn), was built In 1764. It was owned and conducted by the Lititz Moravian congregation, the landlord receiving a salary from the church. It was a large two-story frame Puilding. In 1804 an addition in brick was made on the West side (where it can still be seen); and In 1848 the old frame inn was removed, thus affording space for a brick addition on the east side, and the house was made all around three stories in height. Soon after that the church sold the property to a private party. The ftrat landlord of "Zum Anker," from the beginning through Revolutionary times, was Andrew Horn. Abraham R. Beek.
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Cornerstone of the new Gemeinhaus (which is the present parsonage) was laid by Bishop Hehl, assisted by Bishops Boehler and Spangenburg, on March 17, 1762. The document placed into the stone makes mention of the Sides Episcopalis Ignatiana, and is dated "the second year of the reign of the most glorious George III of Great Britain and the three hundred and sixth year after the building of the Ancient Brethren's settlement of Lititz, in Bohemia." It was dedicated on September 18, 1763, three hundred persons being present. Bishop Hehl had moved into the Gemeinhaus in August, also the Rev. John C. Franke, who succeeded Dr. Otto as physician of the settlement. The upper story of the Gemeinhaus was used for a place of worship. It was provided with a small organ, moved from the Sisters' House, and "the walls were adorned with a number of beautiful oil paintings," scriptural scenes. In this hall the congregation worshipped until August 13, 1787, when the present church was consecrated. Such in brief is the early history of Lititz, which cannot properly be separated from the early church history of that community

Industrial
The industrial history of Lititz also began in the activities of the Moravian congregation. The organ moved into the new Gemeinhaus in 1763 was not one of Tannenberg's instruments, but David Tannenberg (or Tanneberger) began to manufacture organs in Lititz in 1765, and his skill as an organ-builder soon brought him "an extended reputation as such." An entry in the Church Diary on November 17, 1768, reads: "Various musicians from Lancaster came to inspect Brother David Tanneberger's new organ (built for a church in Maxatany)." He built the organ for the new church at Lititz, that consecrated in 1787; and he built organs and pianos which found buyers in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Lancaster, Bethlehem, Madison, Virginia, and Salem, North Carolina, and other places. One of his pianos was sold for L22 10s($110 approximately). John Henry Rauch, augermaker, blacksmith and spur- rier in the Lititz settlement, invented the screw-point on augers; "the pattern was sent to England by judge Henry, after which the screw-point was generally introduced." Godfrey Albright, of Lititz, made the first plan of a ten-plate stove; he gave his pattern to Robert Coleman, who then introduced them.

The name of Lititz was extensively spread through the product of the factory of Mathias Tschudy, a hatter of Lititz. He employed many persons in his Lititz factory, where he manufactured chip hats and bonnets. "He was the only person in the United States that understood the art of manufacturing them (chip hats), and supplied nearly all the cities and country with his hats. The palm leaf and straw hats coming into fashion, they were preferred, and consequently the factory was discontinued," stated Rupp, in 1844.

Another industry of the early nineteenth century brought Lititz before the country. John William Rauch, a native of Lititz, began to bake bretzels, or pretzels, in 1810. Earlier, bretzels were made at Rothsville, near Lititz, and "were peddled from a basket through town by a man on horseback from that place, nicknamed 'Dutch Charlie."' Henry Rauch, son of John William, continued the manufacture, and one of his apprentices, Julius F. Sturgis, branched out independently in 1861 as a bretzel manufacturer. In partnership with Jacob Kramer, Sturgis developed a wide market and brought Lititz bretzels into popular demand. He continued to be identified with the local industry until he died in 1897. His widow Sarah sold the business to her son, Nathan D. Sturgis, in 1904. He still has the pretzel bakery; and at least two other members of the Sturgis family are in the pretzel manufacturing business in Lititz. The Sturgis product was registered in 1876 as "The Only Genuine Lititz Bretzels," which indicates that the Lititz product had reached a recognized place in public favor. The manufacture of bretzels, or pretzels, is still one of the main industries of Lititz.

A century ago the malting of grain was one of the leading industries of Lititz. The church authorities encouraged the brewing of malt liquors also, hoping that beer would thus in time take the place of stronger liquor then in comparatively general use in the settlement. Between 1820 and 1824 a malt- house was erected on Broad street, near Carter's run, where Dr. Roebuck's residence later stood. The first maister was Michael Greider; Jacob B. Tshudy acquired the business in about 183o, and operated it until his death, in 1866, after which Mr. R. R. Tshudy conducted it for about twelve years. The origi- nal malthouse was burned in x856, but another, of brick, was built without delay. After Mr. R. R. Tshudy's death in 1878, the building was bought by Messrs. Buch and Brother, and used as a tobacco warehouse. It is still a tobacco warehouse, or cigar factory, subsequent occupiers including Bricker and Snavely, Walter F. Baer, and Halpern and Walter. John Kreiter began to brew malt liquors in 1833, by permission of the church authorities. He built a brewery and maithouse to the southward of the Spring Grounds, southwest of Lititz Spring. The plant was owned in succession by Christian Kreiter, Michael Muecke, John Hamm, F. M. Rauch and R. R. Tshudy (the two last-named in partnership as Rauch & Tshudy). In 1865 fire destroyed the brewery, but a new one was built without delay by Keller and Tshudy. Henry Zortman later owned the property. A tannery was conducted by Jacob Geitner for many years in the building later occupied by Milton Bender, butcher. Tanning by the Geitner family in Lititz was discontinued in 1882, when scarcity of bark caused Clement Geitner to move to Hickory, North Carolina.

The first incorporated industrial company was the Lititz Plow Company (Limited). The company began business in the Lititz grain elevator, but did not succeed, and finally was liquidated. In 1881 the Lititz Bed Spring Company came into existence, and manufactured that specialty for about four years, using the shop subsequently occupied by A. C. Pfautz, blacksmith.

For three or four years from 1905, W. M. Amer and Emanuel G. Witters had a shirt factory on Center street. However, Lititz industrial plants until 1898 were comparatively unimportant, and with one or two exceptions did not aim to supply more than the local demand. But with the establishment of the Keystone Underwear Mills in 1898, Lititz business men became imbued with a wider industrial perspective. The Keystone Underwear Company was organized by Samuel B. Erb, Adam Long and Israel G. Erb, and incorporated in 1905. The directors then were Israel G. Erb, Adam B. Long, G. Gray- bill Diehm, Henry H. Snavely and John L. Wentworth. The mills are still operated, and the product goes to all States and to many foreign countries. Another underwear company was organized soon after the Keystone Mills came into operation. It was known as the Kauffman Knitting Mills, but was not incorporated. The company is now defunct, and the plant is a cigar factory. The Lititz Spring Hosiery Mill now in operation is also a private enterprise.

In the 'nineties a creamery was established on North alley by Garber, Reist and Nissley. The business was expanded to embrace a number of creameries through the enterprise of the partners, E. L. Garber, J. G. Reist, E. G. Reist and C. L. Nissley, and its product shipped mainly to Philadelphia in the form of butter. The firm name eventually became Garber, Reist & Company, and now is E. L. Garber & Son. The W. C. E. Cough Drop, which came into popular favor twenty years ago, was the product of a local establishment. W. C. Enck began to manufacture the specialty in 1893, and organized the firm of W. C. Enck & Company. J. R. Gibbel, his associate, withdrew about seven years later to enter independently into the business of candy manufacturing.

The Lititz Condensed Milk Company was organized in 1899, and in the same year was consolidated with the Excelsior Confectionery Company of Reading under the firm name of the Kendig Manufacturing Company. The new company entered into the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate, and found such a ready demand for the product that the small initial plant soon became inadequate. Local capitalists became interested, and several increases in capital occurred, to meet development needs. With increase to $150,000 authorized capital, the company was reorganized as the Ideal Cocoa and Chocolate Company. There have been capital increases since, but the business is still operataed under the same name, and the products, "Ideal" cocoa and chocolate, are widely known throughout the country.

The development of this company and of several others was materially aided by the fostering interest of a Lititz civic body, the Board of Trade, which was organized through the efforts of John G. Zook and W. H. Muth on March 15, 1901. Its first work was to interest capitalists in the chocolate manufacturing enterprise. Soon afterwards the Board of Trade was instrumental in organizing the J. M. Mast Manufacturing Company, with a capital of $15,000, to manufacture animal traps, patent fishing floats and vegetable graters. In 1905 the Mast Coinpany was merged with the Animal Trap Company of Abingdon, Illinois; and the new company was said to be "the largest concern of its kind in the world." The firm name for more than a decade has been the Oneida Community Company, who now control the operations.

In 1902 the Wellington Manufacturing Company entered extensively into the manufacture of starch. Reorganization in 1904 increased the authorized capital to $2500,000, with change of name to Wellington Starch Company. The corporation supplied American and European markets, but it was poorly financed, and eventually had to cease operations. The plant is now used by Acme Metel Products Co., manufacturing safes, bank vaults and metal furniture. In 1904 the Lititz Shoe Company was organized, and took possession of a building vacated by the Kendig Manufacturing Company. The machin- ery installed was capable of producing 500 pairs of Goodyear welt shoes daily. It was merged in the Eby Shoe Company, which was organized in 1904. The planing mill formerly occupied by Seaber & Grube was remodelled, and equipped with machinery for the manufacture of one thousand pairs a day of children's shoes. The shoe factory is still owned and operated by the original company, which has a branch in Denver, and is now raising a large factory building in Ephrata, the first steel-framed structure raised in that borough, by the way.

The Lititz Lithographing Company, successors of the Hertgen Lithographing Company of Lancaster, became established in Lititz in 1905, through the enterprise of Dr. J. C. Brobst, P. B. Bucher, W. M. Keissling, H. Reist Landis and J. E. Hertgen, who were its officers. The manufacture of paper boxes was a substantial part of its business. It is at present known as Lititz Paper Box and Printing Company, quite an extensive business. In 1905 also, the Consumers' Box Board and Paper Company was organized, with the follow- ing officers and directors: Dr. P. J. Roebuck, E. E. Weaver, G. A. Hoffrnan, D. E. Bruner, J. F. Stoner, H. H. Gingrich, H. C. Seldomridge, A. R. Lane and C. B. Risser. The original capital was $150,000. The plant is still one of the important industries of Lititz. It has another plant at Binkley Bridge. A business of substantial importance is that of the H. B. Workman Company, manufacturers of web halters.

Tobacco curing is an appreciable industry of Lititz; there are several cigar manufacturers and some cigar box manufacturers. Other industries included the making of safes by Stiffel & Freeman (now Acme Metal Co.) , there is a cement works, several pretzel bakeries, a large planing mill; and, of course, Lititz is well supplied with service companies and retail establishments such as one would expect to find in a progressive inland town. The increase in population during the last two decades would indicate that although Lititz is one of the oldest communities of the. county, it is still one of the most vigorous. The population in 1900 was 1,637; in 1910, it was 2,082; but the 1920 census discovered the population of Lititz to be 3,680. The greater part of this increase came by annexation by Lititz of part of Warwick township, but part may be attributed to vigorous industrial activity.